`Infinity`

in JavaScript is a special number with an interesting property: it's bigger than any finite number.

Without knowing the properties of `Infinity`

in advance, you might be surprised how infinite numbers perform in conditionals and arithmetical operations.

Let's look at the properties of `Infinity`

number in JavaScript, understand the use cases and be aware of common pitfalls.

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## 1. The definition of Infinity

The ECMAScript standard describes `Infinity`

as follows:

There are two other special values, called

positive Infinityandnegative Infinity. [...] Note that these two infinite Number values are produced by the program expressions`+Infinity`

(or simply`Infinity`

) and`-Infinity`

.

Which means that `Infinity`

, as well as `-Infinity`

(the number small than any finite number) are special values of type number:

typeof Infinity; // => 'number'typeof -Infinity; // => 'number'

`Infinity`

is a property on the global object. For instance in a browser:

window.Infinity; // => Infinity

Note that `Number`

function has 2 properties holding the infinite values as well:

Number.POSITIVE_INFINITY; // => InfinityNumber.NEGATIVE_INFINITY; // => -Infinity

## 2. The properties of Infinity

`Infinity`

is bigger than any finite number.

Let's see some examples:

Infinity > 100; // => trueInfinity > Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER; // => trueInfinity > Number.MAX_VALUE; // => true

`Infinity`

has interesting effects when used as an operand in arithmetical operations like addition, multiplication and division:

Infinity + 1; // => InfinityInfinity + Infinity; // => InfinityInfinity * 2; // => InfinityInfinity * Infinity; // => InfinityInfinity / 2; // => Infinity

Some operations with `Infinity`

result in finite numbers:

10 / Infinity; // => 0

Dividing a finite number by `0`

results in `Infinity`

:

2 / 0; // => Infinity

Making conceptually incorrect operations on infinite numbers results in `NaN`

. For example, you can't divide infinite numbers, and you cannot determine if an infinite number is odd or even:

Infinity / Infinity; // => NaNInfinity % 2; // => NaN

### 2.1 The negative infinity

`-Infinity`

(the negative infinity) is smaller than any finite number.

Let's compare `-Infinity`

with some finite numbers:

-Infinity < 100; // => true-Infinity < -Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER; // => true-Infinity < -Number.MAX_VALUE; // => true

At the same time, negative infinity is smaller than positive infinity:

-Infinity < Infinity; // => true

You might end up in negative infinity when using operands of different signs:

Infinity * -1; // => -InfinityInfinity / -2; // => -Infinity-2 / 0; // => -Infinity

## 3. Checking for Infinity

Fortunately, an infinite value equals to an infinite value of the same sign:

Infinity === Infinity; // => true-Infinity === -Infinity; // => true

Because of different signs `Infinity`

doesn't equal `-Infinity`

:

Infinity === -Infinity; // => false

JavaScript has a special function `Number.isFinite(value)`

that checks whether the provided value is finite:

Number.isFinite(Infinity); // => falseNumber.isFinite(-Infinity); // => falseNumber.isFinite(999); // => true

## 4. When to use Infinity

The infinity value is handy to initialize computations involving comparisons of numbers.

For example, when searching for a minimum value in an array, you could initialize the `min`

variable with `Inifinity`

.

function findMin(array) { let min = Infinity; for (const item of array) { min = Math.min(min, item); } return min;}findMin([5, 2, 1, 4]); // => 1

On first `for()`

iteration the minimum value becomes the first item because any finite value is smaller than `Infinity`

.

## 5. Pitfalls of Infinity

Most likely you won't work directly with `Infinity`

values so often. However, it worth knowing when the infinite values could appear.

### 5.1 Parsing numbers

Let's say JavaScript uses an input (POST request, value from an input field, etc) to parse a number. In simple cases it would work fine:

// Parses the float numberparseFloat('10.5'); // => 10.5// Indicates an invalid numberparseFloat('ZZZ'); // => NaN

Care must be taken because `'Infinity'`

string is parsed by `parseFloat()`

as an actual `Infinity`

number:

parseFloat('Infinity'); // => Infinity

It should be a validation error when the user introduces the `'Infinity'`

string into a numeric input field.

An alternative could be `parseInt()`

to parse integers. It doesn't recongize `'Infinity'`

as an integer:

parseInt('10', 10); // => 10parseInt('Infinity', 10); // => NaN

### 5.2 JSON serialization

`JSON.stringify()`

serializes an `Infinity`

number to `null`

.

const worker = { salary: Infinity};JSON.stringify(worker); // => '{ "salary": null }'

`salary`

property is `Infinity`

. But when stringified to JSON, `"salary"`

becomes `null`

.

### 5.3 Max number overflow

`Number.MAX_VALUE`

is the biggest float number in JavaScript.

Trying to use a number even bigger than `Number.MAX_VALUE`

, JavaScript transforms such number to `Infinity`

:

2 * Number.MAX_VALUE; // => InfinityMath.pow(10, 1000); // => Infinity

### 5.4 Math functions

Some functions of `Math`

namespace in JavaScript can return infinite numbers.

Here are a few examples:

const numbers = [1, 2];const empty = [];Math.max(...numbers); // => 2Math.max(...empty); // => -InfinityMath.min(...numbers); // => 1Math.min(...empty); // => Infinity

`Math.max()`

when invoked without arguments returns `-Infinity`

, and `Math.min()`

correspondingly `Infinity`

. That could be a surprise if you try to determine the max or min of an empty array.

Here's an interesting math discussion why that happens.

## 6. Key takeaway

`Infinity`

in JavaScript represents the concept of an infinite number. Any finite number is smaller than `Infinity`

, and any finite number is bigger `-Infinity`

.

Comparing infinite values in JavaScript is easy: `Infinity === Infinity`

is `true`

. The special function `Number.isFinite()`

determines if the supplied argument is a finite number.

You can initialize variables with `Infinite`

when starting an algorithm that involves a comparison of numbers. A use case is finding the minimum of an array.

Care must be taken with `Infinity`

when parsing numbers from inputs: `Number('Infinity')`

, `parseFloat('Infinity')`

return the actual `Infinity`

number. When serialized with `JSON.stringify()`

, the infinite number becomes `null`

.

Hopefully, after reading my post you have a better idea of infinite numbers!